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INDEX OF GRAMMATICAL POINTS TREATED

Absolute comparative, 91, 92

Absolute superlative, 91, 92

Absolute synonyms, 53

Abstract nouns, 4, 74, 94

Active voice, 118, 119

Actual division of the sentence, 199—

208 Adjective:

base, 89, 90

derived, 89, 90

place of adjectives, 190, 237

qualitative, 89

relative, 89 Adverb, morphemic structure, 164, 165

separable adverbs, 165 Adverbial use of nouns, 77, 78 Adverbial adjuncts, 194, 195 Adverbial clauses:

of cause, 267,

of concession, 274—277

of condition, 270—273

of manner and comparison, 277,

278

of place, 268

of purpose, 214

of result, 273, 274

of time, 269, 270 Ambiguity, 40, 41, 45, 47, 50, 68, 152,

153, 190, 195, 228—233, 237, 287 Allomorph, 60 Analytical forms, 64 Anaphoric to, 219 Archaic forms, 55, 160, 293 Article, 84—88

contrasting use of the article, 86

definiteness — indefiniteness, 84,

85

generalisation — concretisation, 84,

85

stylistic functions of the article,

86, 87

the use of the article in substantivation, 96—98 Aspect:

actions of single occurrence, 134—

136,

common ~ progressive, 130

ingression (inchoative aspect), 130,

132repeated actions, 132—134

Asymmetry, 46, 180, 221

Asyndeton, 252, 283—285

Attribute, 189—190

Attributive bond, 189

Attributive clauses

continuative, 265, 266 restrictive, 265, 266 synonymic alternatives of attributive clauses, 266—277

Back-formation, 103 Be:

auxiliary, 106

copulative, 106

representative, 106, 217—220

Can and could, 114, 115

Case, 78—83

Category of state, 166

Causative, 131, 153

Cognate object, 193, 194

Cohesion, 287, 290

Colloquial English, 87, 296

Communicative unit, 169, 170

Comparative 'elatives', 92

Comparison, 90—95

Completive bond, 189

Complex sentence, 253

Composite sentence, 252—257

Compound predicate, 186

Compound sentence, 253

Compression by nominalisation, 289—

291, 265, 267, 270, 272, 274 Concord, 176 Conjunctive adverbs, 260 Connotation, 47, 51, 53, 115, 292, 295 Consituation, 49, 127, 160—163, 172 Contact clauses, 252 Context, significance in judging, 37—

42, 91, 184, 287

Context-sensitive, 32, 195, 272, 273, 287 Conversion, 68, 69 Covert grammar, 80 Current relevance, 150

299Deep sense-structure, 32, 273

Denotation, 37—42, 45, 47

Direct object, 190—194

Discourse analysis, see Text-linguistics

Distribution, 29, 69

Do:

auxiliary verb, 248

emphatic auxiliary, 106, 107, 248

half-auxiliary verb, 105—106 notional verb, 248

semi-auxiliary, 247

substitute, 217—220 Doublets, 55, 58 Durative aspect, see Aspect

Ellipsis, 212

Emphasis, 49—52, 96—98, 117, 220—

225

Emphatic verb-forms, 106, 107 Expressivity:

adherent, 291—298

inherent, 291—298

Factitive object, see Cognate object

Field structure, 42—45

Finitude — non-finitude, 99, 100

Form-word, see Function-word

Formal English, 87

Free morpheme, 61

Foreign plural, 76, 77

Free indirect speech, see Represented

speech

Function-word, 31, 62, 69, 71, 105

Futurity, 154—159

Functional re-evaluation of grammatical forms, 45

Functional sentence perspective,

see Actual division of the sentence

Generative grammar, 34 Get-passive, 119, 125 Go, verb-intensifier, 106, 107, 223 Going to-future, 157, 158 Gradable meaning, 91 Grammeme, 61 Grammatical category, 61 Grammatical colligation (collocation), 234—249

Habitual action, 138 Half-auxiliary verbs, 130—134 Head-word, 234—236 Historic present, 141 Homonymy,

constructional, 228—233

300inflectional, 68 interparadigmatic, 68 Hypotaxis, 252—280

Idiom, grammatical, 81, 118, 121, 132,

158

Idiomatic sentences, 225—228 Idiosyncrasy, 286, 294, 201 Immediate constituent (IC's analysis),

29, 187, 188, 189 Imperative mood, 108, 109 Imperative modality, 108, 109 Imperative sentences, 270—273 Implicit predication, 281, 282 Implied plurality, 72, 78 Included clause, 254 Included sentence, 254 Incongruity, 228—233 Indefinite subject, 184 Inflection, 31, 63, 101, 102 Informal English, 291—298 Inner object, see Cognate object Intensity, 90, 92, 220, 291—298 Intonation, 31, 291 Intransitive verbs, 190, 193 Introductory subject, see Subject Inversion, 110, 195, 198 It:

anticipatory, 185

it is..., it was..., see actual division

of the sentence Iterative aspect, see Aspect

Kernel sentence, 33

Lexical collocation, 174 Lexico-grammatical periphrasis, 181, 182

Major syntax, 170 Minor syntax, 170 Modal verbs:

primary functions, 111 — 118

secondary functions, 111—118 Modality, 11—114, 172, 173, 186, 291 —

298 Mood, 107—111

mechanistic analysis, 187

mentalistic analysis, 187 Modification, 65 Morphology:

paradigmatics, 60

subject-matter of morphology, 60

syntagmatics, 60 Must, 112, 113

primary functions, 112, 113

secondary functions, 112, 113Nexus of deprecation, 18, 40, 181

Notional verbs, 105

Non-emphatic — emphatic, 106

Non-grammatical, 220

Non-past tense, 138

Non-progressive, 101

Non-perfective, 149, 150

Nominal predicate, 186

Nominality:

infinitival nominal, 262—274 gerundive nominal, 262—274 participial nominal, 265—274

Noun:

noun-determiner, 70 noun-phrase, 236 noun-adjunct groups, 237 adverbial use of nouns, 77, 78

Not, 48, 217

Number, 44, 72

Object, 190

object complements, 190

objective case, see Case

object relationship, 194

of-phrase, 82, 83 One:

general, 44, 184

substitute, 217

One-member sentences, 208—211 One-word sentences, 171 Oppositional relations, 61

binary opposition, 27, 61, 172, 173

trinomic opposition, 61

polynomic opposition, 61 Overt grammar, 80

Paradigmatics, 60, 175

derivational paradigm, 174 morphological paradigm, 174 sentence-paradigm, 175—182

Parataxis, 253

Parcelling in sentence-structure, 197, 198

Parts of speech, 70

Passive, see Active — Passive, 118, 119

Passive auxiliary, 246

Perfective, 101

Periphrastic form, 53

Phase, 155

Phrase, 234—249

definition, 234—236 endocentric, 234 exocentric, 234

Phrasal verbs, 108, 125—128, 130—136

Plurality, see Field structure

Polysemy:

potential polysemy, 45, 46 synchronic polysemy, 46Possessive case, 78, 83 Predicate,

types of predicate, 186 Predication, Predicative bond, 189 Predicative clauses, 262 Preposed modifiers, 236 Prescriptive (pre-normative)

grammar, 11, 12

Present tense:

exclusive present, 138, 139

imperative modality, 139

inclusive present, 137 neutral present, 138, 139

perfective use, 141 Priority, 150 Privative opposition, see Binary

opposition Progressive (continuous) tenses:

denotative meaning, 142

imperative modality, 145

implication of futurity, 145

qualitative meaning, 144

repetitive meaning, 144 Pronouns:

personal pronouns, 160

stylistic transposition of

personal pronouns, 160—163 Prosody, 31, 222, 240, 291

Qualitative genitive, 80 Qualitative meaning, 189, 190, 224, 225

Representation, 217—220 Represented speech, 285—286 Rheme, 172 Rhetorical questions, 221, 222

Scientific grammar, 13 Secondary parts of the sentence, 189 Segmentation, 198, 199 Semi-auxiliary verbs, 248 Sentence-order, 254 Sentence-substitute, 219—220 Separable verbs, 103—105 Sentence-structure, 169 Shall and should, 116—118

So, anaphoric, 219—220

Specialisation, 84

Structural Ambiguity, see Ambiguity

Structural grammar, 23—34

Stress, 40, 41, 85

Style, 87

problems of style in grammar, 87,

94, 95, 97, 98 Sub-clause, See Subordination

301Subject, definition:

the definite subject — the indefinite subject, 184

introductory subject, 185 Subjunctive, 107, 108, 110 Subordination, 261—282 Substitution, 217—220 Substantivation of adjectives, 96—98 Substitutes for passive, 125—130 Superlative, 90 Suppletive form, 63 Supra-phrasal unity, 199, 200 Surface structure, 32, 283, 287 Syndetic, 252 Synonymy:

paradigmatic synonyms, 47, 52—55

relative synonyms, 53, 54

synonyms by function in speech,

47, 52—55, 154

stylistic synonyms, 53, 54 Synsemantics, 71 Syntagmatics, 60, 175 Syntax:

syntactic categories, 193, 194

syntactic content, 193, 194

syntactic forms, 193, 194, 195

syntactic functions, 175

syntactic hierarchy, 175 Syntactic mood, 172 Synthetic forms, 63, 64Taxonomic classes of words, 67

Theme, 172

Textlinguistics, 199

Tense, 137—159

Transformational grammar. 33

Transform, 33, 34, 192, 193

Transitivity, 190—194

Transposition of grammatical forms, 45—49, 280, 281 regular, 48, 49 stylistic, 48, 49

Two-member (two-nucleus) sentences, 184

Used to, 133

Utterance, 171

Verbal predicate, 186

Verb forms, 99—101

Verb phrases, 130—136, 242—244

Verbless sentences, 185, 186, 214—217

Variant forms, see Doublets

Voice, see Active — passive

Word-order, 195, 196

Will/would, 118, 227

Wish-sentences, 280, 281

With-phrase, 287

Zero article, 84

Zero (grammatical) inflection, 31

Zero-derivative nouns, 135

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Источник: N. M. RAYEVSKA. MODERN ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 1976

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